State Exterior Quarantine

A quarantine is established against the following pest, its hosts, and possible carriers:

A.    Pest. Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, a beetle, family Scarabaeidae, which in the larval stage attacks the roots of many plants and as an adult attacks the leaves and fruits of many plants.

B.    Definition – California is a category 1 state under the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan which can be referenced at: http://nationalplantboard.org/wp-content/uploads/docs/jbhp_2017_update.pdf


C.    Area Under Quarantine.

1.     The entire states of Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and the District of Columbia.

2.     In Canada: the entire provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Quebec.


D.    Articles and Commodities Covered.  The following are hereby declared to be hosts and possible carriers of the pest quarantined against:

1.     Soil (except when commercially packaged). For the purpose of this section, soil shall mean all growing media;

2.     Humus, compost and manure (except when commercially packaged);

3.     All plants with roots (except bareroot plants free from soil). “Free from soil” as used in this regulation shall mean free from soil in amounts that could contain concealed Japanese beetle larvae or pupae;

4.     Grass sod;

5.     Plant crowns or roots for propagation (except when free from soil);

6.     Bulbs, corms, tubers, and rhizomes of ornamental plants (except when free from soil);

7.     Any other plant, plant part, article, or means of conveyance when it is determined by a California State Plant Quarantine Officer to present a hazard of spreading live Japanese beetle due to infestation or exposure to infestation by Japanese beetle.


E.    Restrictions.  All articles and commodities covered are prohibited entry into California from the area under quarantine with the following exceptions:

1.     Certificate of Treatment.  All of the articles and commodities covered are approved for entry into California when accompanied by a certificate issued by an authorized state agricultural official stating that the article or shipment was treated for Japanese beetle prior to shipment in accordance with methods and procedures approved and prescribed by the Secretary.

All treatments shall be performed under direct supervision of an authorized state agricultural official or by the shipper under compliance agreement with the authorized state agricultural official to perform the treatments.  The authorized state agricultural official shall monitor all treatments and procedures performed under a compliance agreement.


The phytosanitary certificate shall bear the following Additional Declaration (AD):

“The rooted plants were treated to control Popillia japonica according to the criteria for shipment to category 1 states as provided in the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan.”


2.     Certificate of Origin.  Commercial plant shipments with soil may be shipped from the area under quarantine into California provided such shipments are accompanied by a certificate issued by an authorized state agricultural official at origin.  Such certificates shall be issued only if the shipment conforms fully with either (a), (b), (c), (d), or (e) below:

a.     Production in an Approved Japanese Beetle-Free Greenhouse/Screenhouse. All the following criteria apply:

1.     All growing media shall be sterilized, except for commercially processed or prepared (soilless) growing material.

2.     All stock shall be free of soil (bareroot) before planting into the approved medium.

3.     The potted plants shall be maintained within the greenhouse/screenhouse during the entire adult flight period.

4.     During the adult flight period the greenhouse/screenhouse shall be made secure so that adult Japanese beetle cannot gain entry. Security will be documented by the authorized agricultural official.

5.     No Japanese beetle-contaminated material shall be allowed into the secured area at any time.

6.     The greenhouse/screenhouse shall be officially inspected by the authorized agricultural official and shall be specifically approved as a secure area. They shall be inspected by the same officials for the presence of all life stages of the Japanese beetle.

7.     The plants and their growing medium shall be appropriately protected from subsequent infestation while being stored, packed and shipped.

8.     Certified greenhouse/screenhouse nursery stock shall not be transported into or through any infested areas unless identity is preserved and adequate safeguards are applied to prevent possible infestation.

9.     Shipments from each greenhouse/screenhouse operation approved by the authorized agricultural official as having met and maintained the above criteria, shall be issued a phytosanitary certificate bearing the following additional declaration (AD):

"The rooted plants (or crowns) were produced in an approved Japanese beetle- free greenhouse or screenhouse."


b.     Plants Produced Outside Regulated Area. The plants were not produced in the regulated area, were transported into the regulated area in a closed conveyance or closed containers and at all times thereafter were protected from becoming infested with Japanese beetle; or

c.     Origin County Free Survey. States or portions of states listed in the area under quarantine may have counties that are not infested with Japanese beetle.  Shipments of articles and commodities covered will be accepted from these non-infested counties if annual surveys are made in such counties and the results of such surveys are negative for Japanese beetle.  A list of counties so approved will be maintained by the Secretary.  The agricultural officials of other states may recommend a non-infested county be placed on the approved county list by writing for such approval and stating how the surveys were made giving the following information:

1.     Area surveyed.

2.     How survey was carried out.

3.     Personnel involved.

4.     If the county was previously infested, give date of last infestation.

The recommendation for approval of such counties will be evaluated by the Pest Exclusion Branch, Division of Plant Industry, California Department of Food and Agriculture.

If heavy infestations occur in neighboring counties, approval may be denied.  To be maintained on the approved list, each county must be reapproved every twelve (12) months.  Shipments of articles and commodities covered from non-infested counties will only be allowed entry into California if the non-infested county has been placed on the approved list prior to the arrival of the shipment in California.

d.     Nursery Free Survey Growing operations certified under this approach shall grow all their own stock or shall receive nursery stock to introduce into the operation which has been certified free of Japanese beetle by an authorized agricultural official.

The nursery site and a minimum one mile radius buffer area shall be trapped on an annual basis by an authorized agricultural official. The growing operation shall be trapped at the following trap density:


1.     For sites less than 5 acres in size, 3 traps are used per site.

2.     For sites 5 to 30 acres in size, 1 trap is used for each 5 acres.

3.     For sites 30 to 160 acres in size, 1 trap is used for each 10 acres.

4.     For sites greater than 160 acres in size, 8 traps are used for each 100 acres.


Traps shall be evenly spaced throughout the trapping areas.


In addition, the surrounding one mile buffer area shall be trapped at a minimum of 2 traps placed per square mile.


Traps shall be baited with a lure consisting of a Japanese beetle food lure (phenyl-ethyl proprionate:eugenol: geraniol [3:7:3 ratio]) and male sex pheromone, and renewed as often as necessary to maintain trapping efficacy.


The detection of a female (or any beetle if sexing is not performed) Japanese beetle on the nursery site shall result in that nursery being considered infested until a delimitation survey has been completed and regulated articles and commodities cannot be certified based upon an origin free from Japanese beetle.


The detection of a Japanese beetle in the buffer area shall trigger a delimitation survey and the nursery may continue to ship until there is a second detection in the same season as the original detection.


Delimitation Survey: Delimitation traps shall be placed over a 49 square-mile area.  Trap density in the core square mile shall be increased to 50 traps.  Trap densities in the remainder of the delimitation area shall be decreased from the core outward within 48 hours of the find to complete a 50-25-5-5 array.  Trap densities in the core square mile shall be increased to protocol levels within 24 hours, while trap placement in the remainder of the delimitation area shall be completed from the core outward within 48 hours of the find.  Traps in the core mile shall be serviced daily for the first week, and all others serviced at least once within the first week.  After one week of negative finds, trap inspection frequency shall change to weekly.  Delimitation trapping shall then continue for the remainder of the season. Trap densities revert to origin survey levels after two seasons of negative finds (includes the find season).


The phytosanitary certificate shall bear the following Additional Declaration (AD):

“The plants were produced in a nursery which was found to be free of Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) based on negative detection trapping.”


e.     Production During a Pest-Free Window

The entire rooted plant production cycle (planting, growth, harvest, and shipment) will be completed within a pest-free window outside the adult Japanese beetle flight period, June through September, in Japanese beetle-free commercial growing medium or sterilized field soil. The accompanying phytosanitary certificate shall bear the following Additional Declaration (AD):

"These plants were produced outside the Japanese beetle flight season in Japanese beetle-free growing medium or sterilized field soil."

3.     Privately owned houseplants grown indoors may be inspected and passed by California State Plant Quarantine Officers if found free from Japanese beetle.





    The following counties have been determined to be non-infested with Japanese beetle by annual surveys:

    Morgan County, CO.  Expiration 11-15-2016